What is Treponema pallidum?

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By Steve Page

If you’re looking for an infection treatment, you may be wondering what is Treponema pallidum. It’s a spirochaete bacterium that causes syphilis, bejel, and yaws, among other things. While it is primarily transmitted between humans, it can also infect bovines and cause bovine digital dermatitis.

Yaws

The clinical presentation of yaws is similar to that of syphilis. There are three main stages of yaws: the early, secondary, and late. In the early stage, the lesions are pinhead-size, firm, and may develop a swollen gland and crust. Later, the lesions may develop into a cauliflower-like growth. Generally, they occur on the face, buttocks, and arms.

Primary yaws appear three to four weeks after the infection. The lesions become larger and ulcerated, and the adjacent lymph nodes may be swollen and tender. Primary yaws usually heal on their own after three to six months, without any treatment. Secondary yaws may develop years after the initial infection, and may include painful nodules on the bones, particularly the long bones. The lesions may interfere with mobility and joint function.

Treatment for yaws depends on the extent of seropositivity among children. Treatment aims at eliminating the disease in active cases, contacts in household and school settings, and children aged less than 15 years. However, no specific vaccination is currently available for yaws. In addition to antibiotic treatment, health education and improved personal hygiene are essential. Vaccines for yaws are also needed to reduce the risk of transmission and to prevent recurrences.

Pinta

Pinta is a neglected chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century. It is found in Mexico, Central America, and South America, but the global prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance. Pinta is caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum, which is closely related to the bacterium that causes venereal syphilis and yaws. Modern molecular techniques have made it possible to distinguish between several subspecies, including T. pallidum endemicum and T. pallidum subspecies pertenue.

Two related species of treponema are known to cause syphilis in rabbits and asymptomatic infections in African baboons, but they are not epidemiologically significant in humans. However, they are closely related, so the disease can occur in both humans and animals. In this case, a native Austrian woman was diagnosed with pinta after discovering psoriasiform plaques on her trunk. The patient’s husband was a Cuban native and had previously contracted syphilis.

Chlamydia trachomatis

The major outer membrane protein (MOP) of C. trachomatis contains specific antigens, and each serovar of the disease is distinguished by its genotype and virulence. The genetic diversity of C. trachomatis is important for monitoring contact tracing and understanding its pathogenesis. It is also important to determine if the STI is caused by a different pathogen, such as Ureaplasma spp.

There are 15 serovars of C. trachomatis, which are divided into genital and ocular strains. The ocular strains are responsible for trachoma and are often the primary source of sexually transmitted infections. The genital serovars (Serovars D-K) are more invasive, attacking local lymphatic tissues. The infection is often associated with HIV.

Chlamydia trachomatis is a common cause of genital infections in women. It can also cause pneumonia in newborns and disease of the eye in young children. Similarly, young children can develop upper respiratory tract infections, ear infections, and laryngitis from C. trachomatis. It is important to understand the difference between the two strains to identify a potential source of infection.

Chlamydia syphilis

Chlamydia syphis and Treponema pallidum are two spirochetal bacteria that can cause sexually transmitted infections. They are grouped into two distinct subspecies: pallidum and pertenue. Treponema pallidum causes syphilis and is a common cause of yaws and pinta. These two subspecies are virtually indistinguishable and are not differentiated by routine clinical laboratory tests.

The first clinical manifestation of syphilis is a chancre. However, if the infection is not treated, the chancre can form a large, ulcerative lump. Treponema pallidum then invades the bloodstream and lymphatic systems, and eventually the central nervous system. The disease is typically found in the skin, but can occur in any organ.

Untreated syphilis can result in long-term health problems and reproductive infertility. In men, untreated chlamydia and syphilis can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Untreated syphilis and gonorrhoea can result in a stillbirth or premature birth.