Many medical and social concerns are unique to men who have sex with men, many of which are unique to this population. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are of particular concern, as they can have serious long-term implications for the physical and mental well-being of the MSM population. As a doctor, it is my duty to ensure that these individuals receive adequate treatment for their STDs. The following article will discuss the different STD treatments available for MSM and how they can be used effectively.
STD treatments must be tailored to individual cases so that the most effective course of action may be taken. It is also essential that any underlying issues or risk factors be addressed to prevent future infections. This article will provide an overview of current STD treatments, including both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, and offer guidance on how best to implement them to achieve the desired results.
Finally, this article will explore the impact that stigma and discrimination can have on access to care for MSM and emphasize the importance of providing supportive environments for those seeking treatment for STDs. By doing so, we can ensure that MSM receive the medical care they deserve without fear or judgement.
Overview Of STD Treatments
Like a surgeon’s scalpel, STD treatments are an invaluable tool for men who have sex with men (MSM), providing them with the means to fight off and recover from unwanted infections. As such, it is important to understand the range of available treatments and their respective advantages and disadvantages.
When it comes to STDs, the most common treatments are antibiotics. Depending on the infection, different types of antibiotics can be prescribed. For example, gonorrhoea and chlamydia can both be treated with a single dose of azithromycin or ceftriaxone. Similarly, syphilis can be treated with penicillin if caught early enough — otherwise more intensive medication may be required. Antibiotics are generally effective for bacterial STDs, but they cannot treat viral infections like HIV or herpes. In these cases, antiviral drugs must be used instead.
The effectiveness of STD treatments depends on various factors such as proper diagnosis, timely treatment and compliance with medication instructions. If any of these conditions is not met, the treatment will likely fail and there will be an increased risk of further complications such as infertility or chronic pain. It is therefore essential that those affected seek medical advice from a qualified professional to get the best possible outcome from their treatment regimen.
Common STDs Affecting Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM)
As an experienced physician, I have seen many cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in men who have sex with men (MSM). If left untreated, these infections can often be serious and even life-threatening. In this article, I will outline some of the most common STDs affecting MSM and their associated treatments.
Sexually transmitted infections, or STIs, are often spread through unprotected sexual contact. Common examples of STIs affecting MSM include syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HIV/AIDS. All of these infections can cause severe symptoms such as genital sores or rashes, body aches, fever, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves a course of antibiotics to clear the infection. In some cases where antibiotic resistance is a factor, alternatives such as antiviral medications may be prescribed.
To reduce the risk of transmission, it is essential for MSM to practice safe sex by using condoms during all sexual activities, in addition to medical treatment for STDs. Adopting a healthier lifestyle including regular exercise and abstaining from drugs and alcohol can also help reduce the chances of infection. By taking these precautions and seeking prompt medical attention when symptoms arise, MSM can better protect themselves against STDs.
For those affected by STDs, it is important to understand that early diagnosis and treatment are key in preventing more serious health complications down the road. It is therefore critical for individuals at risk to take steps towards protecting their health by getting tested regularly and seeking appropriate medical attention if necessary.
Symptoms Of MSM STD Infections
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at higher risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than their heterosexual counterparts. For instance, a recent study conducted in the United States found that MSM were more likely to acquire HIV and other viral STIs such as hepatitis B or C, herpes simplex virus type 2, and human papillomavirus. It is therefore important for MSM to be aware of the symptoms associated with these infections.
The most common signs and symptoms of an STI among MSM include genital sores or warts, itching in the genital area, abnormal discharge from the penis or rectum, pain during urination, and sexual activity. In some cases, an individual may not experience any symptoms yet still be infected. Therefore, it is important to get tested regularly if there has been unprotected sex or contact with someone else’s bodily fluids.
Diagnosis usually involves taking a sample of bodily fluid or tissue for laboratory testing. Depending on the type of STI present, treatment may involve antibiotics or antiviral medications. It is also important for patients to abstain from sex until treatment has been completed, and all partners have been informed about the infection so that they can seek testing and treatment if necessary. Furthermore, it is essential for individuals to practice safe sex by using condoms correctly each time they engage in sexual activity to reduce their risk of being exposed to another STD.
Diagnosing STDs In MSM
Diagnosing STDs in MSM is a complex process. It requires careful evaluation of the patient’s history and current symptoms, as well as laboratory testing to accurately identify any infections. First, it is important to obtain a detailed sexual history from the patient; this includes the number of partners, types of contact (oral, anal, etc.), and use of protection. Additionally, a physical examination should be performed to check for signs or symptoms that may indicate an infection.
Laboratory testing is also an essential part of diagnosing STDs in MSM. Tests such as urine screening or swabbing may be used to test for bacterial infections such as gonorrhoea or chlamydia. Blood tests can also be used to test for viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis B. Depending on the specific STD being tested for, additional tests may be necessary.
It is important to note that all positive results must be followed up with further investigations and confirmatory testing if needed. Treatment should start immediately upon diagnosis so that any long-term complications can be avoided, and the infection does not spread further. With accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment, most STDs can be effectively managed in MSM populations.
Treatment Considerations For MSM
When treating men who have sex with men, it is important to consider the individual patient’s history as well as current health status. Depending on any existing symptoms, testing may be performed to detect any existing sexually transmitted infections. Upon diagnosis, an appropriate treatment plan should then be developed and implemented.
The treatment of STIs can vary depending on the infection itself, and the patient’s overall medical history. Common infections such as gonorrhoea or chlamydia can usually be treated with antibiotics, while other infections may require a combination of medications, including antiretroviral therapy or even surgery. In addition, follow-up visits may be necessary to monitor any potential side effects or drug resistance issues that could arise from the course of treatment.
For patients who are at risk for HIV infection, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should also be discussed to reduce any future transmission risks. PrEP involves taking a daily medication that helps to prevent HIV infection if it is exposed via sexual contact. It is important to discuss all available options with patients to ensure they are fully informed and comfortable with their chosen method of prevention and treatment.
Antibiotics For Treating STDs In Men Who Have Sex With Men
STD infections in men who have sex with men (MSM) are on the rise, and effective treatments are needed to reduce the spread of infection. Antibiotics have been used effectively to treat a variety of STD infections, and they can be an important part of treatment for MSM.
A recent survey showed that over 30% of MSM between the ages of 15-24 had experienced an STD infection in the last year alone. This is a worrying statistic, and underscores the importance of using antibiotics as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals infected with STDs.
When considering antibiotic use for treating STDs in MSM, there are several factors to consider:
- The type of infection must be accurately diagnosed by a medical professional.
- The most suitable antibiotic should be selected based on the individual’s medical history and current physical condition.
- The antibiotic should be taken as prescribed by a doctor or other health care provider.
- Follow-up tests should be conducted to ensure that the infection has been successfully treated.
Antibiotics can provide an effective means for reducing symptoms and preventing further spread of STD infections among MSM. They should always be administered under the direction of a healthcare professional to ensure optimal safety and efficacy. By following proper protocols, antibiotics can play a key role in helping reduce the prevalence of STDs among this population.
Treatment Alternatives For STDs
As delicate and precise as a tightrope walker, the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in men who have sex with men (MSM) must be approached with care. While antibiotics remain the primary treatment for STDs, it is important to consider other alternatives due to recent increases in antibiotic resistance. In this article, we discuss various treatments available for STDs in MSM besides antibiotics.
Promoting sexual health among MSM requires a holistic approach that encompasses preventative measures such as correct and consistent condom use, regular testing and screening for STDs, and awareness of high-risk behaviours. If an STD has been contracted, however, non-antibiotic treatments can be used to help manage symptoms. For example, topical antifungal creams or ointments are commonly prescribed to treat yeast infections caused by Candida albicans. Antiviral medications may also be recommended to address viral infections such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).
There are certain lifestyle changes that can help reduce the risk of contracting an STD or reduce its severity if contracted. These include abstaining from sexual activity until all symptoms have cleared up; avoiding multiple sexual partners; limiting alcohol consumption; maintaining good hygiene; and eating a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Additionally, supplements like zinc, lysine, and selenium may be beneficial for some individuals who suffer from recurrent genital herpes outbreaks, but further research is needed on their efficacy.
To make informed decisions about treating STDs in MSM, it is essential to explore all available options while considering individual needs and preferences. Health practitioners should provide patients with accurate information about ways to reduce their risk of infection and provide guidance on which treatments would best suit their particular situation.
Managing STD Symptoms In Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM)
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at higher risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). For instance, John is a 29-year-old man from the United States who identifies as MSM and has been recently infected with gonorrhoea. It is essential that individuals like John receive proper care and management of their STD symptoms.
When treating MSM for STD symptoms, it is important to consider lifestyle factors that could be contributing to the infection. This includes considering the number of sexual partners they have, any recreational drug use, and how often they are tested for STDs. Additionally, identifying and addressing underlying mental health issues can be beneficial in managing the STD symptoms.
Medication is an effective way of managing STD symptoms in MSM. Antibiotics can be prescribed by a healthcare provider to fight off bacterial infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea, while antiviral drugs can treat viral infections such as HIV or herpes. Furthermore, depending on the type of infection, topical creams may be applied to reduce inflammation and discomfort caused by some STDs like genital warts or herpes lesions. In addition to medication, practising safe sex by using condoms and lubricant during intercourse can help prevent further spread of disease.
It is important that individuals with an identified STD receive proper treatment, so they can manage their symptoms effectively. Healthcare providers should offer support and guidance throughout the entire process, so patients feel empowered to take control of their health needs. With this approach, patients can get back on track towards better sexual health outcomes in no time.
Reducing The Risk Of Re-Infection
Recent research indicates that almost 50% of men who have sex with men (MSM) are re-infected with an STD within a year of initial infection. This alarming statistic highlights the need for effective strategies to reduce the risk of re-infection. As a doctor, it is important to provide comprehensive education and awareness about preventative measures that can be taken to minimize the risk of contracting and spreading STDs among MSM.
The first step towards reducing the risk of re-infection is to encourage regular testing and diagnosis. Advising patients to get tested annually, or more frequently depending on their sexual behaviour, can help detect any new infections that may have been contracted since their last visit. It is also important to consider any previous infections they may have had when prescribing treatment.
In addition, it is important to provide comprehensive information about safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams consistently and correctly, limiting sexual partners, and avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia. Education about these topics should be tailored to each individual’s needs to maximize efficacy. In some cases, further resources such as access to free condoms or needle exchange programs may be necessary to ensure effective implementation of preventative measures.
By providing reliable medical advice and adequate resources for MSM patients, doctors can play an important role in helping them reduce their risk of re-infection with STDs.
Vaccines For Preventing STDs In MSM
Given the increased risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among men who have sex with men (MSM), it is essential to consider the role of vaccines in preventing these infections. Vaccination has long been recognized as an effective measure for the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and it is no different for STDs. This article will explore the efficacy of vaccines as a preventative measure against STDs in MSM populations.
First, research has demonstrated that vaccines can reduce the incidence of certain STDs in MSM populations. For example, studies have found that vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) can reduce HPV-related genital warts and precancerous lesions in this population. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that hepatitis A and B vaccine can reduce hepatitis A and B infection rates among MSM. Furthermore, a recent study has shown that herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine can be effective in reducing HSV-2 seroconversion among HIV positive MSM individuals.
In terms of safety, current data suggests that vaccines are generally safe for use among MSM populations. Studies have found that adverse events related to vaccination are rare, with most being minor and transient in nature. Moreover, research has indicated that there is no need for providers to modify existing protocols when administering vaccines to this population group.
Overall, the evidence indicates that vaccinations are an effective way to prevent STDs among MSM populations. Vaccines offer protection against several common STDs such as HPV, hepatitis A and B virus and HSV-2 infection while also providing a safe option for prevention without any significant side effects or special considerations needed from healthcare providers administering them.
Mental Health Implications Of STDs For Men Who Have Sex With Men
The mental health implications of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a matter of great concern for men who have sex with men (MSM). A study by the World Health Organization (WHO) showed that MSM often face discrimination, stigma, and other psychological pressures due to their sexual orientation. This can be further exacerbated by an STD diagnosis, which can lead to feelings of shame, guilt, hopelessness, and depression.
To understand the psychological impact of STDs on MSM, researchers have conducted numerous studies worldwide. The results suggest that those diagnosed with an STD can experience decreased quality of life and poorer overall mental health outcomes. For example, one study found that MSM living with HIV reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression when compared to those without HIV. Furthermore, another study observed that individuals who had multiple STDs were more likely to suffer from suicidal thoughts than those without any infections.
These findings indicate an urgent need for healthcare providers to recognize the unique challenges faced by MSM when it comes to managing their mental health in relation to STD diagnoses. Mental health professionals should strive to provide culturally competent to care to help these individuals cope with the stigma associated with their diagnosis and reduce the risk of long-term psychological damage. Additionally, public health efforts should focus on educating and raising awareness among MSM about proper STD prevention measures to limit exposure in this vulnerable population.
Sexual Health Education For MSM
Sexual health education is a critical component of the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). It is important to provide accurate and up-to-date information to this population, as they are disproportionately affected by STDs. Comprehensive sexual health education can help equip MSM with knowledge and skills that will assist them in making informed decisions about their sexual practices.
The content of sexual health education for MSM should include risk assessment and reduction, STD testing and treatment, communication techniques, condom use negotiation and other safer sex strategies. Additionally, it is important to provide resources for mental health services if needed. It is recommended that these programs be conducted in community-based settings where MSM are already connected or comfortable. This can help foster a safe environment for learning and active participation in the program.
By providing comprehensive sexual health education programs for MSM, we can create an informed population that is better equipped to reduce their risk of contracting STDs. These programs should be designed with the goal of reducing the prevalence of STDs within this population, while also promoting positive attitudes towards sexual health within the community at large.
The Role Of Prep In STD Prevention In MSM
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is emerging as an increasingly important tool for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). PrEP, when taken consistently and correctly, can be highly effective in reducing the risk of HIV transmission and other common STIs. As such, it is essential that health care providers be knowledgeable about PrEP and promote its use to their patients who are MSM.
Like a silver lining on a dark cloud, PrEP offers MSM an opportunity to reduce their risk of infection while continuing to engage in sexual activities. It does so by providing an additional layer of protection against HIV. Research has indicated that PrEP can lower the risk of acquiring HIV from sex by up to 92% if taken daily as prescribed. In addition, recent studies have also found that PrEP may reduce the risk of other STIs, such as syphilis and gonorrhoea. Therefore, by taking PrEP regularly, MSM can protect themselves not only from HIV but also from other STIs.
It is vital that healthcare providers understand the benefits of PrEP and actively promote its use among their patients who are MSM. By educating MSM about this effective form of prevention, healthcare providers can play a pivotal role in decreasing the incidence of STIs in this population. Furthermore, they should provide guidance regarding adherence to ensure that persons taking PrEP receive maximum benefit from it. Ultimately, promoting the use of PrEP is becoming an indispensable part of STD prevention efforts for MSM.
Emergency Contraception For STD Prevention
Emergency contraception (EC), also referred to as the “morning-after pill”, is an effective form of STD prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). EC is a type of hormonal contraception that can be used up to five days after having unprotected sex. It works by preventing the release of an egg from the ovary or fertilization by a sperm, thus preventing pregnancy and reducing the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.
The World Health Organization recommends EC as a first line of defence against unintended pregnancies and STDs. Studies have indicated that EC has a high success rate in reducing the incidence of pregnancies and STDs among MSM when taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse. While EC does not provide protection against all STDs, it can reduce the risk of HIV transmission if taken within 24 hours of exposure. In addition, EC may be combined with other forms of STD prevention, such as condom use and regular testing for HIV and other STDs.
EC has been proven to be safe and effective in protecting MSM from unintended pregnancies and some STDs when taken promptly after unprotected intercourse. It is important for MSM to understand their options for emergency contraception, so they can make informed decisions about their sexual health. Healthcare providers should also ensure that all patients are educated about the availability and efficacy of EC for STD prevention.
Supporting MSM With STD Treatment And Prevention
To provide the best possible treatment and prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM), it is essential to understand their unique needs. This includes understanding how MSM are more likely to contract sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than heterosexuals, and the importance of creating a supportive environment in which they can seek care and advice. This article will focus on three key aspects of supporting MSM with STD treatment and prevention: risk assessment, access to healthcare services, and education.
Firstly, it is important that health professionals can accurately assess risk in MSM populations. This involves assessing individual behaviours such as number of partners, types of sexual activities, frequency of testing, use of protection, etc. To ensure that risk assessment is accurate and up-to-date, regular training programs should be provided for healthcare providers on the latest STI trends among MSM populations.
Secondly, access to healthcare services must be available for those at risk. This includes making sure that there is an adequate supply of sexual health clinics which offer free or affordable testing and treatments. Additionally, providing LGBTQ+ friendly services can help reduce stigma related to seeking medical care for STDs in this population.
Finally, educational efforts should be made to raise awareness about the risks associated with unprotected sex among MSM populations. This can include providing information on safe sex practices as well as distributing informational materials in places where MSM congregates, such as bars or clubs. Additionally, providing resources on STI testing locations or support groups can also help increase knowledge about STD prevention and treatment options available for this population group. By taking these steps towards better supporting MSM with STD treatment and prevention, society will become more equipped to reduce its burden from STIs overall.
Frequently Asked Questions
What Is The Best Way To Reduce The Risk Of Re-Infection After Being Treated For An STD?
Recent studies have indicated that an estimated 1.1 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) every year. This alarming figure emphasizes the need for effective prevention and treatment methods for those who are affected. One of the best ways to reduce the risk of re-infection after being treated for an STD is through education and counselling on safe sex practices.
The success of treatment depends largely on understanding and adhering to recommended practices, such as using condoms consistently or avoiding risky sexual behaviours. Education should also include information on how to recognize symptoms associated with STDs, as well as how to seek timely medical help if needed. Counselling can provide individuals with direct support and advice on how to prevent future infections by changing problematic attitudes and behaviours related to sexual activity.
It is important for healthcare providers to emphasize the importance of regular checkups, even after successful treatment of an STD, to detect any new or recurring infections at an early stage. In addition, they should encourage patients to practice safe sex measures and provide contact information for local agencies offering counselling services if required. With proper guidance and education, individuals can take steps towards reducing their risk of reinfection and helping protect their partners from becoming infected too.
How Can I Access Sexual Health Education Specifically For MSM?
Men’s health is a critical issue, particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM). It is important for MSM to receive sexual health education that can help them reduce the risk of re-infection following treatment for an STD. This paper will explore how MSM can access sexual health education.
There are several organizations and online resources dedicated to providing information about sexual health specifically for MSM. These include LGBT-friendly healthcare organizations such as Planned Parenthood and The Trevor Project, as well as websites like SexEd Guru and Healthline, which both provide comprehensive information on sexual health topics from contraception and STDs to dating safety tips. Additionally, many communities offer support groups where men can talk openly about their experiences related to sexual health without judgement or bias.
It is clear that there are a variety of options available for MSM who want to gain access to sexual health knowledge and resources. Through these sources, men like Peter can gain valuable insight on how best to reduce their risk of re-infection after being treated for an STD, while also receiving support from those who understand their unique needs and struggles.
How Effective Are Vaccines For Preventing STDs In MSM?
The risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is higher than the general population. Vaccines have been identified as a potential tool to reduce the burden of STDs in this population. However, their effectiveness in controlling the spread and incidence of common STDs among MSM remains unclear.
A recent study sought to evaluate the efficacy of current vaccines available for preventing STDs among MSM. The researchers analysed data from three randomized clinical trials that included over 2,500 participants. It was found that vaccination was associated with reduced rates of infection for certain STDs, including Neisseria gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and human papillomavirus types 6 and 11. Additionally, these findings suggest that vaccination may be effective against other STDs commonly seen in MSM populations.
These results provide valuable insight into how vaccinations can play a role in reducing the burden of STDs in MSM populations. Vaccines can be an important tool for health care providers when creating strategies for preventing and managing infections among this group. With further research, it is possible to better understand the impact of vaccines on STD rates within this population and develop more targeted public health interventions to reduce STD-related morbidity and mortality.
Are There Any Mental Health Implications Of Having An STD For MSM?
Having an STD can be a traumatic experience for anyone, especially men who have sex with men (MSM). The mental health implications of such a diagnosis can be far-reaching and potentially devastating. To shine a light on these implications, it is important to understand the full scope of what could be at stake. It is like a storm cloud looming in the distance, and it is up to us to prepare for what might come our way.
The psychological impact of being diagnosed with an STD can be overwhelming. Aside from the physical symptoms, many MSM may feel guilt, shame, depression, or anxiety. These emotions can cause more damage than the physical ailment itself and should not be taken lightly. Additionally, there may be a fear of abandonment from partners or friends, which further exacerbates feelings of loneliness and isolation.
— Difficulty concentrating
— Poor decision-making
— Loss of appetite
— Sleep disturbances
It is critical that MSM are provided with resources that address both physical and mental health needs related to STDs. This includes finding safe spaces where they can openly discuss their concerns without fear of judgement or stigma.
Accessible support networks should also be established so that those living with STDs do not feel alone during this difficult time in their lives. By helping them process their emotions and providing practical advice on how best to manage their condition, we can help create healthier futures for those affected by STDs within the MSM community.
What Forms Of Emergency Contraception Are Available For STD Prevention?
STD prevention is a key factor in maintaining the sexual health of Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM). According to a 2018 report from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV diagnoses among MSM have increased by 11% since 2013. It is thus essential to understand the various forms of emergency contraception available for STD prevention.
The first form of emergency contraception available is pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PrEP is a daily pill that provides protection against HIV when taken as prescribed. It can be obtained through an online consultation with a doctor or at a local health clinic. Additionally, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is also available. PEP is a course of antiretroviral drugs taken after potential exposure to HIV, which can reduce the risk of infection if taken correctly within 72 hours.
Other methods used for STD prevention include:
— Condoms: Using condoms correctly and consistently every time you have sexual contact reduces your chances of becoming infected with an STD.
— Vaccines: Vaccines are available for some STDs, including HPV and hepatitis B. These vaccines can protect against certain types of infections before they occur.
— Abstinence: Abstaining from sexual contact greatly reduces the risk of transmission of STDs.
It is important to note that while these forms of emergency contraception are effective in reducing the risk of infection, it is also important to practice safe sex at all times and get tested regularly for any STDs. Regular testing ensures that if you do contract an STD, it can be treated quickly and effectively before any more damage occurs.
It is widely accepted that men who have sex with men (MSM) are at a disproportionately higher risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) than the general population. As such, it is essential that those affected be well-informed on the various treatments and interventions available to them.
The most effective way of reducing the risk of re-infection after being treated for an STD is through consistent use of condoms and other barrier methods. Additionally, education on safer sexual practices is paramount to reduce transmission of STDs among MSM. Vaccines are also available as an effective form of prevention against some STDs, such as HPV, and should be taken into consideration by those at highest risk.
Finally, there can be mental health implications associated with having an STD, which should not be overlooked. Emergency contraception is also available and may provide some protection against unintended pregnancies or STDs if used correctly.
In conclusion, it is vital that MSM remain aware of the treatments and interventions available to them to reduce their risk of acquiring or re-infecting themselves with an STD. Irony can be employed here to illustrate how important it is for individuals to practice safe sexual behaviours regardless of any stigma surrounding them to protect their own sexual health.